The aesthetics of the war in Afghanistan

December 17, 2010 · by David Campbell · More posts, photography, politics

 

A US marine large The aesthetics of the war in Afghanistan

The US-led war in Afghanistan is one of the longest running conflicts in America’s history. After more than nine years, the US and its allies have been fighting in Afghanistan longer than Soviet Union was by the time of its 1989 withdrawal. The war in Afghanistan has also surpassed the formal duration of the Vietnam War, although that claim can be contested.

Photographing this war has only been possible through the system of embedded journalism the US and its allies established for the 2003 invasion of Iraq, leading to an understandable concentration on certain locales like the Korengal Valley (as I discussed here, in a good debate with Tim Hetherington). Only on rare occasions have we seen the conflict from a perspective beyond allied forces, as in the Taliban photographs recently made by Gaith Abdul-Ahad.

Covering such a long-running conflict, the dynamics of which have not altered greatly in its nine years, necessarily produces a certain uniformity to the subjects conveyed. In Boston.com’s Big Picture gallery for November 2010 we see 43 high quality images that detail allied forces, Afghan civilians, Taliban casualties and American military families. There is also an inevitable regularity to the look of these images. As Associated Press photographer David Guttenfelder has noted,

most photojournalists working today, including me, are using similar equipment (very high end 35mm digital SLR cameras) so what we do sometimes looks very uniform.

The aesthetics of the conflict is a vital dimension of assessing how the war in Afghanistan as been pictured. But to raise the issue of “aesthetics” is to travel into troubled terrain. A lot of photojournalism is still predicated on the idea that it conveys “things as they are.” This phrase stems from a Sir Fancis Bacon quotation that Dorothea Lange regarded as her working motto:

The contemplation of things as they are, without substitution or imposture, without error and confusion, is in itself a nobler thing than a whole harvest of invention

It also provides the title for the World Press Photo book on the history of photojournalism (Things As They Are: Photojournalism in Context since 1955), it crops up in Henri-Cartier Bresson’s Decisive Moment, and I heard David Hurn invoke those same words during a foto8 seminar in October this year.

The commitment to photojournalism’s descriptive ethos in opposition to “a whole harvest of invention” runs deep. It is a commitment that suggests description is distinct from aesthetics, which is taken to be solely about art and beauty, such that any attempt to “aestheticize” a reality like war is morally suspect.

Pte Santiago taking a cigarette break after a firefight. Damon Winter NYT The aesthetics of the war in Afghanistan

Photo: Private Santiago taking a cigarette break after a firefight. Damon Winter/NYT

We have seen this in recent months through the mixed reactions to the Afghan war images made with iPhones and photography apps. In March this year David Guttenfelder produced a portfolio of Polaroid-like pictures (using ShakeIt Photo) detailing daily military life in Afghanistan. Then last month Damon Winter also made an iPhone series with the Hipstamatic app, one of which was used in the New York Times.

For both Guttenfelder and Winter these pictures, made in addition to their “straight”, DLSR produced, photographs were designed to represent both the daily grind of the war and the vernacular images that soldiers themselves take. According to Winter, “composing with the iPhone is more casual and less deliberate…And the soldiers often take photos of each other with their phones, so they were more comfortable than if I had my regular camera.” Guttenfelder made this interesting observation:

Interestingly, I’ve noticed that Marines and soldiers are now shooting more photos and video themselves. They email them home or post them on their Facebook pages. I’ve even seen them set up a little point-and-shoot video camera next to themselves in the middle of a firefight. But usually they photograph the little moments during their down time to show how they live. The photos are little bits of memory, keepsakes from their long deployments, and a way of communicating with people back home. So, in a way, I was trying to create those kinds of real-life, non-newsy snapshots that Marines might shoot for themselves.

One of the things that is interesting about the Guttenfelder and Winter pictures I have chosen here is their stylistic similarity to Tim Hetherington’s 2007 World Press Photo winner of an exhausted US solider in the Korengal Valley. It seems that whatever the chosen tools, some looks are common.

That said, the need to produce something new after nine years of war is part of what is driving photographers to deploy new approaches and tools. It is evident in different subject matter like Ashley Gilbertson’s Bedrooms of the Fallen, and in novel forms like Damon Winter’s rotating panoramas of US military locations. However, the attention garnered by iPhone pictures and the panoramas led two of the best analysts of contemporary photography to a shared critical commentary on Twitter (14 December 2010):

(Michael Shaw, @BagNewsNotes) Hate to sound like luddite, but iPhone pics and now buzz re: 360º views feels like war coverage has forgotten the war. http://nyti.ms/fiPX4O

@BagNewsNotes couldnt agree more: 1st mobile hipstamatics and now 360ºs enuf with the tech over substance war photos http://nyti.ms/fiPX4O

@foto8 Thing is, it’s not about hi-tech, lo-tech, old-tech or no-tech so much as plain fundamental boredom with the war.

I think we should ask hard questions about how to represent a war that has gone on for so long. I don’t think, though, that those questions are best pursued by a concern over the technologies of representation or the anxiety about aesthetics.

That is because the critique of photography in terms of aestheticization gets to the very nature of photography itself. As Mark Reinhardt asks in Beautiful Suffering, “do indictments of aestheticization in the narrowest sense shade into a challenge to photographs’ sensory engagement itself? Is it the work of giving photographs aesthetic form, as such – is it the very nature of the photographic image – that provokes anxiety?” He thinks so, and I agree.

As the introduction to Things As They Are notes, “in the end, the business of representing reality is all about invention.” In this context, aesthetics is about how we see, perceive and represent the world generally. Photography as a technology of visualization is therefore inevitably and inextricably bound up with aesthetics. Nobody taking or making pictures can escape that.

Victor Blue The aesthetics of the war in Afghanistan

Photo: An injured Corporal Manuel Jiminez, struck by an IED, is shielded by his fellow marines as a medvac helicopter lands in the clearing. Victor Blue.

As an example, consider the photographs of freelancer Victor Blue. According to PDN, ‘Blue is shooting the project primarily with a Canon 5D Mark II, and converting his images to black and white. “I envisioned Afghanistan in gray tones. I saw color as a distraction,” he explains.’ Blue’s photographs, excellent in many regards, invoke the traditional aesthetic of Vietnam era photojournalism. And, as always, they demonstrate that the desaturation of shots is permissible while oversaturation or specialist apps are deemed to be dubious. And what about David Guttenfelder’s “regular” DLSR photographs. Are they not the product of a conventional news/reportage aesthetic?

Perhaps we have reached an impasse in photographing the war in Afghanistan, with both the standard and different approaches no longer carrying the emotional weight of a nine-year conflict. Perhaps, then, the path forwards is not a matter of expressing anxiety about aesthetics per se, or choosing one aesthetic approach over another, but of using the full range of aesthetic options to tell a different story? Which begs the question – what is that different story that needs to be told about the war in Afghanistan after all this time?

Featured photo: A US marine wakes up in the morning after sleeping with his platoon in a mud walled compound in Marjah in Afghanistan’s Helamnd province. David Guttenfelder/AP

References:

  • Mary Panzer, “Introduction,” Things as They Are: Photojournalism in Context since 1955 (World Press Photo/Chris Boot Ltd, 2005)
  • Mark Reinhardt, “Picturing Violence: Aesthetics and the Anxiety of Critique,” in Beautiful Suffering: Photography and the Traffic in Pain, edited by Mark Rienhardt, Holly Edwards and Erina Duganne (University of Chicago Press, 2007)

14 Responses to “The aesthetics of the war in Afghanistan”

  1. Hi David,
    I have some questions in response:
    “I think we should ask hard questions about how to represent a war that has gone on for so long.” Shouldn’t this be: “I think we should ask hard questions about continuing a war that has gone on for so long?”
    “Perhaps we have reached an impasse in photographing the war in Afghanistan, with both the standard and different approaches no longer carrying the emotional weight of a nine-year conflict.” Shouldn’t this be: “What emotional weight, if any, does this nine-year conflict currently have in our society and in our own lifes.”
    “Which begs the question – what is that different story that needs to be told about the war in Afghanistan after all this time?” Should there really be a different story? Has the situation changed? Are we really interested in the lifes of Afghans? If so, let’s talk to them, quite a few of them are in our own societies, they have incredibly interesting stories to tell…

  2. Good and interesting questions Diederik. They are about the war per se rather than the post’s concern with the debate over recent images in terms of aesthetics. I think there should be a story different to the one that both accompanies and is made possible by the combat-focused, US-centric visual account we tend to get. It would be one focused on the lives of Afghans, and as you say, that would involves talking directly to the people concerned.

  3. Obviously you are right, but isn’t the answer already in the introduction of your post, where you say: “Photographing this war has only been possible through the system of embedded journalism the US and its allies established for the 2003 invasion of Iraq?” I think this observation is debatable up to a certain extent. But that aside, I would assume that the embed system and regs force jounalists and photographer into a uniform perspective and, as a result, their production is uniform as well. So it makes sense for photographers to use hipsta etc in order to find a new way of storytelling…even though it’s only a technical filter type of renewal

  4. The opening assumption, like all assumptions is debatable, but are there examples of photographic stories from the front lines of the war in Afghanistan that have been produced by people working outside the embed system? I’m not aware of any, but would like to be corrected if you have some examples.

    The second point you make is central to the post above. As I argued, “photography as a technology of visualization is therefore inevitably and inextricably bound up with aesthetics. Nobody taking or making pictures can escape that.” So I agree and also said that their is a somewhat uniform news/reportage aesthetic.

    The point of that is to re-situate the debate about the iPhone images – people can’t regard them as “aesthetic” as though that were a special category limited to them, and which could not be applied to all pictures emerging from the war. Again, as I wrote:

    “I think we should ask hard questions about how to represent a war that has gone on for so long. I don’t think, though, that those questions are best pursued by a concern over the technologies of representation or the anxiety about aesthetics.”

    The issue, then, is do these various aesthetic forms offer new ways of storytelling? That remains an open question for me.

  5. I know of two unembedded reporters from Holland, both reported with much more criticism than the embeds did. Mind you, they’re reporters and their undercover/low visibility approach obviously affects the quality of their images. In now way can their imagery live up to the aesthetic quality levels of embedded photographers. But at the end of the day, their representations may be a fairer view on life in Afghanistan. As far as I know, no big publication explored this approach.

  6. Similar debate here: http://www.bagnewsnotes.com/2011/01/big-media-sent-3-of-my-favorite-war-photographers-to-afghanistan-and-what-they-brought-me-back-were-the-near-same-medevac-shots/#comments

    Somebody should look into whether embedded reporters/photographers doing their work with sufficient criticism and distance to their subject matter, and whether they are sufficiently independant professionally? It would be a great subject for an anonymous survey, embedding regs included etc..

    Discussing whether or not Hipsta is acceptable may only be interesting for photographers…

    • Thanks for posting the link Diederik. I tweeted that a few days ago, and Michael Shaw makes a good point. We could add a number of other examples of the medevac photo too as its a not uncommon subject for many photojournalists in Afghanistan, with obvious historical parallels. On embedding, that is one of the key issues and the subject of earlier posts on this blog (especially here). There have also been quite a number of academic studies too. I would just note re your final comment, though, that this post is not about whether Hipsta is acceptable or not. I’m interested in how the community of practice around photojournalism speaks about whether something like Hipsta is acceptable. That might seem like a minor distinction, but its important – there is much to learn about photography from the way debates are framed, and that is always one of my principal concerns. Therefore, I question the critique of Hipsta etc as “aesthetic” when in fact all photography is unavoidably aesthetic.

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